Echinococcus: if you in cyst

I heart evidence - by Sense About Science

I heart evidence – by Sense About Science

Echinococcus ortleppi tapeworms were found in 2 patients in France, cases occurred in 2011 and 2012. A report in the Emerging Infectious Diseases describes these cases and what needs to be done.

A survey in 2012 found 7 infected cattle with Echinococcus ortleppi lung cysts, in french slaughterhouses. E.ortleppi was first described in South Africa, it has a dog/cattle life cycle and it is thought to have a low pathogenicity in humans.

Case one:

The 2011 case occurred in Eastern France, the patient was a 63 year old male, ultrasound revealed 2 liver nodules (3 and 6cm in diameter), a CT scan showed atypical lesions in the abdomen, further investigation was carried out with an MRI, which revealed well defined cysts with a structure suggesting cystic echinococcus (CE), CE was initially ruled out due to a negative serology test. A retrospective serological test was carried out and showed evidence of antibodies against echinococcus. It is possible this patient was infected >10 years previously where there was contact with a dog in a cattle breeding area.

Case two:

The second case occurred in Western France, the patient was a 39 year old female, symptoms were fever and abdominal pain. A 7cm diameter cyst was detected in the liver, serological testing was negative for CE. The patient had lived  for many years near farms where they was a number of stray dogs.

Conclusions:

  • E.ortleppi in humans is rare, detection can be difficult as old lesions do not produce detectable specific serum antibodies.
  • Serology tests are designed from E.granulosus sensu structo G1, which is possible antigenically different to E.ortleppi, This may lead to underdiagnosis.
  • It is thought that E.ortleppi may become extinct in Europe, due to less opportunities for transmission. This in part may be due to the appropriate removal of carcasses, leading to less contact between dogs and cattle.
  • It is suggested that a more thorough survey is needed to determine the prevalence of E.ortleppi

For the full article please see: Grenouillet, Frédéric. “Echinococcus ortleppi Infections in Humans and Cattle, France.” Emerging infectious diseases 20.12 (2014): 2100-2102.

References:

Ortlepp, R. J. “Echinococcus in dogs from Pretoria and vicinity.” Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Industry 3 (1934): 97-108.

Grenouillet, Frédéric. “Echinococcus ortleppi Infections in Humans and Cattle, France.” Emerging infectious diseases 20.12 (2014): 2100-2102.

Romig, Thomas, Anke Dinkel, and Ute Mackenstedt. “The present situation of echinococcosis in Europe.” Parasitology International 55 (2006): S187-S191.

Thompson, R. C. A., L. M. Kumaratilake, and J. Eckert. “Observations on< i> echinococcus granulosus</i> of cattle origin in switzerland.” International journal for parasitology 14.3 (1984): 283-291.

Grenouillet, Frédéric. “Echinococcus ortleppi Infections in Humans and Cattle, France.” Emerging infectious diseases 20.12 (2014): 2100-2102.

Verster, Anna Johanna Maria. “Review of Echinococcus Species in South Africa.” Onderstepoort J Vet Res. (1965).

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LauraBennett1987

I have a degree in Zoology and I am currently a PhD student at The University of Nottingham where I am researching Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus 1
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